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Author Topic: Introgression of traits from hybrid specimens into parental populations-Overview  (Read 6684 times)

Endophyte

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« Last Edit: April 25, 2023, 03:13:24 AM by Endophyte »
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modern

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My understanding is only consumption and extractions are not accepted. Alkaloids as trait in selective breeding is used in medical field with them using more advance selection techniques.

Interesting you think that spine traits can be linked to enzyme pathway related traits. After a few weeks researching as much as I could on the topic I've come to the understanding that mescaline and alkaloids in general are more of a way to reduce oxidation death by reducing and using ROS and other reduction products that result from stress. The pathways unregulated from stress to prevent excess cell death which is why alkaloids in nearly all plants increase from increased drought and salt stress. My research so far is only as far as to up-regulating these enzymes though there will be genetic limitations. I've yet research in links to selection or breeding since I'm not at that step yet.

"Increasing Mescaline Biosynthesis to Genetic Potential of Trichocereus and Lophophora" video on youtube goes thru the theoretical process of unregulated all these enzymes. Part two of that video explains why it happens which I summarized here.

EDIT: I'd say that the physical traits or more environment related. Although I will research what you suggested.
« Last Edit: March 03, 2023, 10:22:12 PM by modern »
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Greenmystery

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Nice stuff Endophyte
Very interesting....I'll listen to your ramblings all day long...
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"Through seed satyagraha we will disobey every law engineered by corporations that violate the rights of nature, farmers rights and our rights to seed freedom and food freedom"

modern

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With increased oxides, ROS, and reduced products from regular metabolic process MOST plants increased secondary metabolites to prevent excess cell damage and death. This is all plants in general...

I can also be wrong on my ideas but a few things are true across all plants. As for fluctuations in profile yes these alkaloids are moved and also used. I suspect that mescaline may be a growth regulator and hope I can set up some experiment in the future. I am not a researcher nor a botanist so I may be misunderstanding things.

As for dark periods in the short term some plant do increase alkaloids. In papers on other plants this tend to peak after a week. However the process in biosynthesis of mescaline in cacti such as Tyrosine hydroxylase and DOPA decarboxylase activity can be inhibited by dark treatment and cold temps reduce DD. Where as the drought period that is constant during the 'dark stress' increases both these activity and in nearly all plants increases alkaloids other secondary metabolites. Unless cacti have different up and down regulation of these enzymes

As far as I'm aware, Light is required in NADPH+ which is the process which would accelerate alkaloids accumulation as well as up-regulated the same enzymes as drought. Heat also up-regulated the same enzymes.

Mescaline and other alkaloids have many functions but I doubt it would be a direct relation and more the natural selection is what lead to us having them. Microbal attack and insects eating a plant would result in the plant increasing production or tannins and alkaloids in response. The plants that produced alkaloids 'x' survived and the plants that produced alkaloids 'y' didn't. Natural selection would have made the offspring that had the favorable profile increase in population since less of the unfavorable profile plant survived producing less seeds. Add in a couple hundred years with or without human intervention and the plants have those profiles. Cacti that function in similar manners would all produce the same profile under the same conditions if it were specific function and not an added benefit.

The increased levels of the nocturnal acid might play a role however I believe it is just the natural cam cycle. I'm sure there area likely multiple pathways for these alkaloids and maybe a different one is available with zero light. But malic acid being in high amounts wouldn't mean more alkaloids but rather more salts and as acid is used the alkaloids become 'free' near the end of the day.

All theories that I have; maybe you have a better botanical background then I do and please correct me if I am wrong. Also from my understanding plants increase alkaloids in response to not in prevention of. A plant grown in greenhouse under optimal conditions with zero stressors will have the same products however in much lower concentrations unless specifically selected seeds. Acacias don't have excess tannin naturally but only after excess grazing as with tobacco from insects attacking and other plants. The plants don't have the alkaloid for the function of insecticide but rather the alkaloids helped the plant survive so those that produce it continue on.

I understand not wanting to discuss this in open forum I posted a thread on a few forums titled 'Increasing Mescaline Biosynthesis to Genetic Potential' but no discussion ever arose.
« Last Edit: March 04, 2023, 07:08:08 PM by modern »
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modern

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Interesting on the marine alkaloids. Your posts are very great reads and makes you think differently which I enjoy.

My interests vary a lot and the alkaloids biosynthesis is just a side result of other interest of mine. I'm going to try and see if applying mescaline extract to inactive cacti have any growth rate changes under drought or other high stress conditions.

Most plants contain more alkaloids in optimal conditions due to the increased biomass just in lower concentrations I personally enjoy small compact growth so I go a different route then most.

I followed up on trying to find correlation between physical traits and enzymes and found that trichomes vs alkaloids in datura species. Where the decreases in trichomes amount on leaves in most species led to an increase in alkaloids. I'm unsure if this would translate to cacti but I have noticed in other cacti that increased in trichome density and length indicates maturity. So perhaps for those interested in preselecting seedlings try to use this information? Like you mentioned it might be plant or even species dependent like with datura.

Great discussion it has widened a bit but very cool. Looking forward to your future posts.
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modern

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Here is an older book I've read a few times. You might know most of the information but maybe there is something that interests you.

page 49-82 talks about the inheritable traits and crossing wide results.

http://ndl.ethernet.edu.et/bitstream/123456789/43605/1/George%20R.%20Waller.pdf
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modern

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I also enjoy personal experience and observations but I tend to get ideas from older publications.

That book is quite dated since it was 1978.

I didn't know that alkaloids in ipomoea are produced by a fungus how ever it does make sense since many plants form relationships with fungi.
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