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Author Topic: [DATASHEET] Lophophora Williamsii (Peyote)  (Read 11175 times)

New Wisdom

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[DATASHEET] Lophophora Williamsii (Peyote)
« on: August 14, 2013, 02:09:13 AM »

Datasheet: Lophophora Williamsii (Peyote)

1. NOMENCLATURE

Synonyms: Echinocactus williamsii Lemaire ex Salm-Dyck 1845, Anhalonium williamsii Eng., 1854, Echinocactus rapa Fischer et Meyer, 1869, Ariocarpus williamsii (Lem.) Voss., 1872, Anhalonium williamsii (Lem.) Rümpler, 1886, Lophophora lewinii Rusby, 1894, Lophophora williamsii (Lemaire ex Salm-Dyck) J. M. Coulter 1894, Lophophora lewinii (K. Schumann) Rusby 1894, Echinocactus lewinii Hennings, 1895, Mammillaria lewinii Karsten, 1895, Lophophora lewinii Thompson, 1898, Echinocactus williamsii "Hylaeid α" pelotinica Sch. K., 1898, Echinocactus williamsii "Hylaeid β" v. anhalonica K. Schumann, 1898, Echinocactus williamsii var. pelotinica Rouh., 1927, Echinocactus williamsii var. anhalonica Rouh., 1927, Lophophora caespitosa Krzgr., 1935, Lophophora texana Fric ex Roeder, 1935, Lophophora williamsii var. decipiens Croizat, 1944, Lophophora williamsii var. pentagona Croizat, 1944, Lophophora williamsii var. pluricostata Croizat, 1944, Lophophora echinata Croizat 1944, Lophophora williamsii var. texana Krzgr., 1961, Lophophora lutea var. texana (Fric ex Krzgr.) Backbg., 1961, Lophophora fricii Habermann 1974,
Lophophora jourdaniana Habermann 1975, L. williamsii var. fricii (Habermann) Grym 1997, L. diffusa subsp. fricii (Habermann) Halda 1997
Common Names (english): Peyote, Cactus Pudding, Devil's Root, Diabolic Root, Dry Whiskey, Dumpling Cactus, Indian Dope, Mescal, Mescal Button, Turnip Cactus, Whiskey Cactus, White Mule
Common Names (non-english):
Taxonomic Position: Lophophora

2. DESCRIPTION

Plant Type: Globular Cactus
Morphology: Ribs: Generally fairly straight or spiral in form. Many have 5 or 8 ribs, but rib counts increase with size up to 13 ribs. While going from 5 to 8 or 8 to 13 ribs, form may appear wavy much like L. diffusa. These often "straighten" out once larger. Max. size: With age single heads of 15 cm are possible, but takes many years. Skin: Dull bluish green colour, sometimes a little greyish. Areoles: Spineless and woolly. Roots: Large tap root, as in all Lophophora. Large Lophophora williamsii may have 30cm long tap roots. Usually single taps, but may branch. Capillary roots are few and located randomly all over the main tap root. Flower Morphology: Usually located at the areole(s) in the top center of plant, sometimes flowers from the sides (rarely). Flowers are around 2cm across when open, broad funnel form tube. Scales are a green colour on back (easily seen when "buds" are emerging from the wool). Style is white in colour. Stigma lobes 3-6 (what we have seen) often at the same height as the anthers, anthers fold in to the stigma when touched, perhaps a fertilization adaptation. The ovary is naked. Fruits: Fruits are a shade of pink, naked, about 1-2.5 cm long. Often take approximately 2-8 weeks to develop after fertilization in cultivation. Fruit may contain 0-20 seeds each, sometimes more on the odd occasion.
Similarity to Other Species: ---

3. DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY

Geographical Distribution: Texas - United States : San Luis Potosi - Mexico (North America)
Native Habitat: Peyote can live in a heat of 45 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and tolerates submersion in water on days hotter than 100 degrees. In the summer they may face monsoons and heavy rainfall, though in the winter and fall they'll stay very dry while it is in the 20's. The niche of peyote is in desert region at elevations of 100-1900 meters. And it thrives among soil loaded with limestone. 
Hardiness and Environmental Requirements: Temperature can go as low as 40, but is best kept up around 80 (fahrenheit)  Hot dry weather is necessary with a good amount of sun.
Soil Requirements: Low organic material soil with a PH of 6.5-7.2.

4. PROPAGATION AND CYCLE

Types of Propagation: Seed, cuttings, tissue culture (rare).
Seed Germination Notes: High temp, high humidity, sterile environment, low organic content substrate are all helpful to germination.
Life Cycle:

5. HISTORY AND CULTURE

In 2005 researchers used radiocarbon dating and alkaloid analysis to study two specimens of peyote buttons found in archaeological digs from a site called Shumla Cave No. 5 on the Rio Grande in Texas. The results dated the specimens to between 3780 and 3660 B.C. Alkaloid extraction yielded approximately 2% of the alkaloids including mescaline in both samples. This indicates that native North Americans were likely to have used peyote since at least five and a half thousand years ago.

Specimens from a burial cave in west central Coahuila, Mexico have been similarly analysed and dated to 810 to 1070 AD.

Peyote in Wirikuta, MexicoFrom earliest recorded time, peyote has been used by indigenous peoples, such as the Huichol of northern Mexico and by various Native American tribes, native to or relocated to the Southern Plains states of present-day Oklahoma and Texas. Its usage was also recorded among various Southwestern Athabaskan-language tribal groups. The Tonkawa, the Mescalero and Lipan Apache were the source or first practitioners of peyote religion in the regions north of present-day Mexico. They were also the principal group to introduce peyote to newly arrived migrants, such as the Comanche and Kiowa from the Northern Plains. The religious, ceremonial, and healing uses of peyote may date back over 2,000 years.

Peyote ceremony tipiUnder the auspices of what came to be known as the Native American Church, in the 19th century, American Indians in more widespread regions to the north began to use peyote in religious practices, as part of a revival of native spirituality. Its members refer to peyote as "the sacred medicine", and use it to combat spiritual, physical, and other social ills. Concerned about the drug's psychoactive effects, between the 1880s and 1930s, U.S. authorities attempted to ban Native American religious rituals involving peyote, including the Ghost Dance. Today the Native American Church is one among several religious organizations to use peyote as part of its religious practice.

Inside of peyote ritual tipiPeyote and its associated religion are fairly recent arrivals among the Navajo in the Southwestern United States, and can be firmly dated to the early 20th century. Traditional Navajo belief or ceremonial practice did not mention the use of peyote before its introduction by the neighboring Utes. The Navajo Nation now has the most members of the Native American Church. According to some estimates, 20 percent or more of the Navajo population are practitioners.

Dr. John Raleigh Briggs (1851–1907) was the first to draw scientific attention of the Western scientific world to peyote. Arthur Heffter conducted self experiments on its effects in 1897. Similarly, Norwegian ethnographer Carl Sofus Lumholtz studied and wrote about the use of peyote among the Indians of Mexico. Lumholtz also reported that, lacking other intoxicants, Texas Rangers captured by Union forces during the American Civil War soaked peyote buttons in water and became "intoxicated with the liquid". Arguably, this is the first documented use of peyote by non-native Americans.

6. PROPERTIES AND BENEFITS

Documented properties: Entheogen, entactogen-empathogen
Parts of the plant with therapeutic/psychoactive value: The main body/flesh of the plant above ground. (Green flesh and skin)
Phytochemical Information: Lophophorine, Lophotine, Mescaline, Pellotine

6. REFERENCES AND CITATIONS

STS Threads with Information: Germination of Lophophora and trichocereus seeds
External Links: 1
Citation Sources: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

« Last Edit: August 14, 2013, 08:58:08 PM by New Wisdom »
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Buttons

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Re: [DATASHEET] Lophophora Williamsii (Peyote)
« Reply #1 on: September 14, 2013, 09:21:49 PM »

Great work!!! :)
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chums of chance

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Re: [DATASHEET] Lophophora Williamsii (Peyote)
« Reply #2 on: January 07, 2014, 02:32:43 AM »

I hope I'm not out of line here, but I suggest updating the synonyms section
  • Lophophora koehresii (Říha) Bohata, Myšák & Šnicer 2005
  • Lophophora alberto-vojtechii Bohata, Myšák & Šnicer 2008
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New Wisdom

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Re: [DATASHEET] Lophophora Williamsii (Peyote)
« Reply #3 on: January 07, 2014, 02:52:00 AM »

How are those synonymous with williamsii? Those are different species.

Not exactly sure how it all works, an explanation would be nice.

Thanks.
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chums of chance

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Re: [DATASHEET] Lophophora Williamsii (Peyote)
« Reply #4 on: January 07, 2014, 03:58:28 AM »

In taxonomy, synonyms aren't interchangeable, and the taxonomy of Lophophora is constantly shifting. From the OP's synonymy,
Quote
Lophophora fricii Habermann 1974,
L. williamsii var. fricii (Habermann) Grym 1997,
L. diffusa subsp. fricii (Habermann) Halda 1997

Just my thoughts.
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New Wisdom

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Re: [DATASHEET] Lophophora Williamsii (Peyote)
« Reply #5 on: January 07, 2014, 08:20:08 AM »

To be honest taxonomy confuses the hell out of me. I'm going to do a bit more research into this.  I'm thinking that those probably shouldn't be in there (lophophora ficii ect...) since they aren't synonyms of williamsii. They're completely different species.  Those were basically copied and pasted from one of my sources and I never noticed. Lol. Shows how much attention I pay.

Thanks for the suggestion though. I'll have to do more research before deciding to add them or not.

New Wisdom
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EIRN

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Re: [DATASHEET] Lophophora Williamsii (Peyote)
« Reply #6 on: April 22, 2014, 01:29:06 PM »

A site called The Plant List (www.theplantlist.org) intent to gather taxonomic information. It uses the major botanical gardens names list (ex: IPNI, Kew, Missouri BG, NYBG…).
To each name is presented the status (accepted, unresolved, synonym).
In the L. williamsii case TPL show this:
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