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Author Topic: Catha edulis cultivation and general info.  (Read 8772 times)

LIBERTYNY

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Catha edulis cultivation and general info.
« on: November 04, 2015, 07:40:19 am »

  I can't seem to find a lot of info. about catha edulis on the web,  So I figured I would start a general info. thread about the plant to pool our resources.

  Most of this info I found in the fourms so I cant be sure how accurate it is (mostly the Corroboree)  ! !

 -Germination
Plant point down wing up, Just barely under the soil.
The soil must be a well drained mix as they are very susceptible to damping off.
No humidity dome.
Keep soil moist (not wet) untill germination, then let soil dry out between watering.
Temperature should be in the 80's deg. fahrenheit

 Once established they seem similar to Trichocereus  cacti in terms of general care.

 Different varitys seem to react very differently to environmental conditions.

  -- "Soils and topography
Soil with high clay content is not suitable for khat production. The crop requires well drained dark red-brown, sandy loam with a low percentage of clay and medium to high amounts of total nitrogen, organic matter, available phosphorus, calcium, potassium and magnesium (Murphy,
1959). Khat performs best on soils with a pH of 6.0-8.2. Nevertheless, once established, khat grows well under a wide range of soil types and climatic conditions. The optimal altitude for growing khat ranges from 1500-2100 masl. In Ethiopia khat is extensively grown and thrives
best in mid-land (1500 -2500 masl), but it can also be grown with irrigation down to 1000 masl if the area is free of frost. At the early development stage of the plant, water supply is more critical than soil type. The field should be well manured and drained for good crop
performance.

Rainfall
Khat is tolerant of a wide range of rainfall patterns, the distribution of rains in one season is more critical than the total amount of annual rainfall received. Annual rainfall ranging from 1,000-1,500 mm is considered as ideal for good performance and productivity of the crop. In
Hararghe both the short rains (March- May) and the long rains (June/July-September) are essential for rain fed khat producers but for optimum production farmers also hand-water their khat fields once or twice during the dry season.

Site selection, land preparation and planting
An ideal site for khat growing should have well-drained fertile soil, free of rocks and frost. Khat fields are usually prepared during the dry season, before the rains start.

The propagation method of Khat is by cuttings or suckers having root (s). These planting materials are the only means of propagating, as seeds are not used for propagation due to poor germination rate of the seeds. Planting materials are selected and planted directly in the prepared planting pit. The suckers or cuttings should have circumference of 8-10cm at the base and 50cm long. Suckers are preferable compared with cuttings as the former establishes the plant faster and will be ready for harvest sooner.

Planting pits should be 1m long, at least 50cm deep and 50cm wide and should be prepared at least 2 to 4 weeks before planting. At a planting time two suckers are planted in each pit and selected later on the basis of their performance and vigour. No single period is determined for planting khat, it all depends on the availability of water. In general the spacing between rows ranges 1-5m and 0.4-1m between plants.

In Hararghe khat is often grown in association with different food crops and is highly compatible when intercropped. The practice of row planting and intercropping simplifies agricultural operations besides easing up the existing land shortage. In marginal and steep sloping areas, where other crops can not be grown, pure stands of khat are planted.

Manure
Continuous harvesting of khat exhausts and debilitates the mother plant unless fertiliser is used to maintain soil fertility. Manure is applied on khat every year based on the availability of manure or compost. Farmers prefer organic fertilizers (manure and compost) as compared to inorganic (chemical) fertilisers. The volume of manure available is limited and too scarce to satisfy the needs of farmers. Thus, farmers in Hararghe prepare their own compost and use this to improve soil fertility.

Weeding
Farmers in Hararghe have a good reputation in terms of managing and keeping their crop fields weed free and clean. Khat fields are weeded and harrowed/cultivated at least 3-4 times a year. Cultivation is the means of controlling weeds and farmers make sure that no weeds grow under the crop. Mulching khat plots with different available materials is another cultural practice used to control weeds and conserve soil moisture.

Thinning, pruning and stumping
Despite the lack of extension support and advice, farmers in Hararghe are well versed in khat management. Among the management practices thinning or removing poorly performing damaged and infected branches is an important one. Khat reacts very well to pruning and stumping, producing long, straight stems in a few years though frequent harvesting done in a proper manner tends to make pruning unnecessary. When khat attains about half of its life the stand will be pruned to about a meter heigh. Stumping initiates new shoots regenerating from the rootstock."
  From _ https://anthrome.wordpress.com/2009/06/22/celastraceae-catha-edulis-khat-mirra/


Kenyan Khat the social life of a stimulant (PDF)   ---   http://libgen.net/view.php?id=427394
  Partial book pre-views
https://books.google.com/books?id=HhtxBITJmtYC&lpg=PA37&ots=S3RPmHq3g_&dq=meru+khat+tree+kenya+harvest&pg=PA27&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0312229690/ref%3Dnosim/broughsbooks/002-2475878-3060841#reader_0312229690

  Documents
  https://drugs-forum.com/forum/local_links.php?catid=154



 
« Last Edit: August 07, 2016, 06:30:05 am by LIBERTYNY »
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Athena

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Re: Catha edulis cultivation and general info.
« Reply #1 on: November 04, 2015, 11:29:31 am »

This is just in my experience, but planting with the wing up made no significant difference. It seems to me that its far more important that the seed not be buried too deep, though perhaps that is why it is suggested to plant with the wing up. Also, a humidity dome greatly improves germination. My most successful batch was where I had half-filled a small tupperware container with soil from my garden, covered the surface with organic compost, sprayed everything until it was quite moist, scattered seeds on top followed by sprinkling a very, very thin layer of organic compost on top again (so thin in fact that you could see parts of the wings of some seeds). Sprayed again and closed the lid. You want to put that somewhere where there's lots of light and warmth, and because of the moisture/humidity + warmth, you want to air that out often so mold won't form. As soon as a couple of seedlings pop up, you can permanently remove the cover but keep the soil moist. I got 17/20 seedlings from that method, whereas previously I had gotten roughly 50% germ rate using the forum method you mentioned. I also tried germinating khat seeds using the paper towel + baggie method, almost all seeds germinated but then you have to pick the roots free from the paper towel.
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khatmando

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Re: Catha edulis cultivation and general info.
« Reply #2 on: January 22, 2016, 10:09:04 pm »

There is a thread on the lycaeum as well, that answers a couple of growing questions.

http://www.lycaeum.org/forum/index.php/topic,32725.0.html
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Stonehenge

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Re: Catha edulis cultivation and general info.
« Reply #3 on: January 22, 2016, 11:34:30 pm »

I have a couple khat trees, if anyone needs cuttings. Plus a seedling. One of the trees flowers every other year giving a few seeds. I've noticed that when it gets really cold the leaves turn red.

Seeds must be fresh, even a month old will probably not sprout no matter if you kept them in the fridge. They sprout fairly easily if fresh. Khat is resistant to drought but not as much as a cactus. I tried chewing a few leaves once, didn't get much out of it. Its an acquired habit.
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Athena

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Re: Catha edulis cultivation and general info.
« Reply #4 on: January 23, 2016, 12:06:52 pm »

I haven't noticed that the seeds lose viability that quickly. I once sprouted a pack of seeds that I had thought I had lost for a while, got fairly good germ rates and the seeds were at least a year old. After reading so many different forum posts of failed attempts or low germ rates I was really surprised that khat actually seems fairly easy to get going from seed.
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Athena

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Re: Catha edulis cultivation and general info.
« Reply #5 on: January 23, 2016, 04:44:18 pm »

The ones you have given  have sprouted 2 weeks ago. 100% germ rate.      :)    ,Their at least 2 months old + how ever long you had them.  Thank You again by the way.
   The ones I paid top $$$ from a entho supplyer have 0 germ rate.

My pleasure  :) That's really great! I'm curious, which germination method did you end up using?
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Stonehenge

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Re: Catha edulis cultivation and general info.
« Reply #6 on: January 25, 2016, 01:36:14 am »

Athena, I'm happy for you. For me, seeds sent in the mail supposedly fresh did not sprout at all after a few weeks in transit. My own seeds did not sprout after... might have been more than a month maybe two.
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Roze

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Re: Catha edulis cultivation and general info.
« Reply #7 on: August 06, 2016, 05:46:08 pm »

Chicken manure for  garden fertilizing is excellent, but my Khat plant didnt enjoy it that much.

This manure fertilizer is very high in nitrogen and also contains a good amount of potassium and phosphorus, but the high nitrogen in the chicken manure is dangerous to plants if the manure has not been properly composted.. and that was my case.

I´ve use a strong raw chicken manure fertilizer mix and that burned the roots.. very lucky that doesnt kill any plant!

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mr.miyagi

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Re: Catha edulis cultivation and general info.
« Reply #8 on: April 08, 2017, 09:49:13 pm »

As soon as a couple of seedlings pop up, you can permanently remove the cover but keep the soil moist.

I actually got 3 seeds to germinate using your method with a humidity dome, I was more then shocked to see they had sprouted, I transplanted one seedling already to its own pot,  I put a zip lock over it to keep it some humidity, do you think this is a bad idea?
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Athena

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Re: Catha edulis cultivation and general info.
« Reply #9 on: April 09, 2017, 03:59:44 pm »

The ziploc isn't necessary. I removed my humidity dome as soon as a few seedlings came up. Just don't let the soil dry out and the seedlings will do just fine without a humidity dome. If you decide to keep the ziploc cover a while longer, remember to remove it occasionally else you could have mold attacking your seedlings.
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mr.miyagi

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Re: Catha edulis cultivation and general info.
« Reply #10 on: April 09, 2017, 10:25:17 pm »

Thank you so much! I've got two more that i'm about to move into separate pots in a little while :)
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